Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Apr 1, , Muthi’ Ikawati and others published Ekstrak Air Jamur Ling Zhi (Ganoderma lucidum (Leysser) Karsten). Besides as a cause of tree disease, Ganoderma is also a medicine for human health. Ganoderma used as medicine is Ganoderma lucidum. This fungus. Jamur Ganoderma lucidum (dikenal juga dengan nama Ling Zhi di China, atau disebut sebagai Mannetake/Reishi di Jepang) telah dimanfaatkan secara luas.
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The lingzhi mushroom is a polypore mushroom belonging to the genus Ganoderma.
Its red-varnished, kidney-shaped cap gives it a distinct appearance. When fresh, the lingzhi is soft, cork-like, and flat. It lacks gills on its underside, and instead releases its spores via fine pores. Depending on the age of the mushroom, the pores on its underside may be white or brown. Lingzhi mushroom is used in traditional Chinese medicine.
Only two or three out of 10, such aged trees will have lingzhi growth, and therefore its wild form is extremely rare. It is part of a species complex that encompasses several fungal species.
The most common and closely related species are Ganoderma lucidum see also Scytalidopepsin B and Ganoderma tsugae. There are multiple species of lingzhi encompassed within the Ganoderma lucidum species complex and mycologists continue researching the differences among species within this complex.
Petter Adolf Karsten named the genus Ganoderma in With the advent of genome sequencing, the genus Ganoderma has undergone taxonomic reclassification. Prior to genetic analyses of fungi, classification was done according to morphological characteristics such as size and color.
The internal transcribed spacer region of the Ganoderma genome is considered to be a standard barcode marker.
It was once thought that Ganoderma lucidum generally occurred in two growth forms: However, recent molecular evidence has identified the former, stalkless, form as a distinct species called G. Environmental conditions play a substantial role in the lingzhi’s manifest morphological characteristics. For example, elevated carbon dioxide levels result in stem elongation in lingzhi. Other formations include antlers without a cap, which may also be related to carbon dioxide levels.
The three main factors that influence fruit body development morphology are light, temperature, and humidity. While water and air quality play a role in fruit body development morphology, they do so to a lesser degree. Ganoderma lucidum and its close relative, Ganoderma tsugaegrow in the northern Eastern Hemlock forests. These two species of bracket fungus have a worldwide distribution in both tropical and temperate geographical regions, growing as a parasite or saprotroph on a wide variety of trees.
In the wild, lingzhi grows at the base and stumps of deciduous trees, especially that of the maple. Depending on environmental or cultivation conditions lingzhi may resemble antlers, with no umbrella cap.
Chi Zhi Ganoderma rubra is bitter and balanced. It mainly treats binding in the chest, boosts the heart qi, supplements the center, sharpens the wits, and [causes people] not to forget [i. Protracted taking may make the body light, prevent senility, and prolong life so as to make one an immortal. Its other name is Dan Zhi Cinnabar Ganoderma. It grows in mountains and valleys. While Chinese texts have recorded medicinal uses of lingzhi for more than 2, years, a few sources erroneously claim its use can be traced back more than 4, years.
Taken over a long period of time, the agility of the body will not cease, and the years are lengthened to those of the Immortal Fairies. Stuart and Smith’s classic study of Chinese herbology describes the zhi. It is said to absorb the earthy vapors and to leave a heavenly atmosphere. It is large and of a branched form, and probably represents Clavaria or Sparassis.
Its form is likened to that of coral. According to Stuart and Smith. It is specially used in hemorrhage from the bowels and prolapse of the rectum. In Chinese artthe lingzhi symbolizes great health and longevity, as depicted in the imperial Forbidden City and Summer Palace. The name of the lingzhi fungus has a two thousand-year-old history.
Fabrizio Pregadio notes, “The term zhiwhich has no equivalent in Western languages, refers to a variety of supermundane substances often described as plants, fungi, or ‘excrescences’. Lingzhi has several synonyms. It is a [ ruicao ] felicitous plant. Since both Chinese ling and zhi have multiple meanings, lingzhi has diverse English translations.
Renditions include “[zhi] possessed of soul power”,  “Herb of Spiritual Potency” or “Mushroom of Immortality”,  “Numinous Mushroom”,  “divine mushroom”,  “divine fungus”,  “Magic Fungus”, jamir and “Marvelous Fungus”. According to the OEDthe earliest recorded usage of the Wade—Giles romanization ling chih is and of the Pinyin lingzhi is In addition to the transliterated loanword, English names include “glossy ganoderma” and “shiny polyporus”.
Synonyms for reishi are divided between Sino-Japanese borrowings and native Japanese coinages. The Vietnamese language word linh chi is a loanword from Chinese.
Ganoderma lucidum produces a group of triterpenes called ganoderic acidswhich have a molecular structure similar to that of steroid hormones. A Cochrane database review found insufficient evidence to justify the use of G. It suggests that G. Because of its bitter taste, lingzhi is traditionally prepared as a hot water yanoderma product. The red lingzhi is often more bitter than the black. The process is sometimes repeated to increase the concentration.
Alternatively, it can be used as an ingredient in a formula decoctionor used to make an extract in liquid, capsule, or powder form. The more active banoderma forms of lingzhi are far too bitter to be consumed in a soup.
Lingzhi is now commercially manufactured and sold. Since the early s, most lingzhi is cultivated. Lingzhi can grow on substrates such as sawdust, grain, and wood logs. After formation of the fruiting body, lingzhi is most commonly harvested, dried, ground, and processed into tablets or capsules to be directly ingested or made into tea or soup. Other lingzhi products include processed fungal mycelia or spores.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Lingzhi mushroom Scientific classification Kingdom: Ancient Herb for Modern Times. Revue mycologique, Toulouse in Latin. A Greek-English Lexicon Abridged ed. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. An exploration of tradition, Healing, and Culture. Field Guide to Mushrooms. Ganodermz Xuan or Selections of Refined Literature. Translated by Yang, Shouzhong. Chinese Materia Medica, Pt. Archived from the original on 31 August The Encyclopedia of Taoism.
The Religious System of China. Its ancient forms, evolution, history and present aspect. Manners, customs and social institutions connected therewith. Food Plants of China. The Trail of Time.
Lingzhi mushroom – Wikipedia
University of California Press. Victoria and Albert Museum ; This context describes the lingzhi fungus and ruyi scepter as Daoist symbols of longevity on a jade vase. Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry.
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. In Benzie, Iris F. Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects 2nd ed. Chinese herbology Indian herbology Islamic herbology Japanese herbology Korean herbology.
List of plants used in herbalism. Furs Honey Pine honey Wild game. Retrieved from ” https: CS1 Latin-language sources la Articles with ‘species’ microformats All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from December Articles containing Chinese-language text Articles containing Vietnamese-language text Articles containing Thai-language text Articles containing Korean-language text Articles containing Japanese-language text Articles containing Old Chinese-language text Articles with unsourced statements from April Commons category link is locally defined Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers.